Effect of Training on Employee Performance: A Quantitative Study on Employees within the Human Resource Department

June 2022
ISSN: 2221-2523

Razib Hossain1



This study aims to explore the relationship between employee training and employee performance in organizations. It uses a theoretical framework of competencies—knowledge, skills, and attitudes—to present the relationship between training and employee performance. Training provides three learning outcomes, i.e., knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). These learning outcomes develop competency among employees to improve problem-solving capacity, productivity, timeliness to perform the assigned job, creativity, quality, and fulfillment of customer demand, which are the indicators used to measure employee performance. This study has been conducted based on primary data collected through a questionnaire survey from a sample of one hundred and seventeen employees working in the human resource (HR) departments of some selected private organizations in Bangladesh. Respondents have been selected through the convenience sampling method. Statistical tools, such as SPSS and MS Excel, are used to make correlation and regression analysis. Blanchard et al.’s (2014) KSA theoretical approach has been used to analyze empirical findings. This study has revealed that there is a moderate positive influence of training programs on employee performance. The empirical and practical significance of the study focuses on the importance of effective training to improve employee performance in organizations. However, organizations must use an effective evaluation system to ensure the effectiveness of training programs.


Keywords: Training, Competency, and Performance.


An Analysis of Employee Satisfaction in Physical Work Setup and Work-From-Home (WFH) in the Context of Bangladesh


Volume 14, No. 1, December 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.57240/DUJM140105

Page No: 71-87, ISSN: 2221-2523


Sutapa Bhattacharjee, PhD1


Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic was a black swan for the whole world. It was a phenomenon that profoundly altered the workplace context and employee work setup. Even though a number of developed nations have started taking advantage of the benefits of working from home since the last decade, Bangladesh was not one of those. This article tried to find out if there is any relationship between the work setup (i.e., working from home versus a physical work setup) and employee satisfaction by developing two hypotheses. The article went through an extensive literature review for secondary information. Primary data, on the other hand, were gathered from a total of 125 respondents from various industries. Judgmental and snowball sampling were used in the context of questionnaire circulation. The questionnaire had twenty-five questions in relation to employee learning, compensation, total hours of work, rewards and benefits, interpersonal relationships with coworkers, overall work-life balance, etc. A paired t-test was carried out to identify which hypothesis could be accepted. This research article identified that because of long working hours, impact on rewards and benefits, detachment from coworkers, poor work-life balance, and other factors, employees do not feel satisfied with a work-from-home setup. The analysis revealed that employee satisfaction could be largely influenced by work setup, and in the context of Bangladesh, physical work setup and factors related to it led to higher employee satisfaction.


Keywords: COVID-19, physical work setup, work from home,-.

1) Professor, Institute of Business Administration (IBA), University of Dhaka



COVID-19: Challenges to Accept New Normal Life


Volume 14, No. 1, December 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.57240/DUJM140104

Page No: 35-55, ISSN: 2221-2523


Shilpi Das, PhD1

Popy Rani Sarkar2


Abstract: COVID-19 has turned the dynamic normal life into a stagnant life by disseminating the fear of infection to all. It is a period of exigency. The main objective of this study is to explore different challenges that common people are envisaging to accept a new normal life. The paper has been prepared based on the survey of 250 respondents divided into three categories: students, job holders, and businessmen. Four questions mentioning several challenges, ways of outgrowing, recommendations for authority, and different opinions of the respondents have been added to the survey questionnaire, where ‘Challenges’ is an independent variable and ‘Accepting new normal life’ is a dependent variable. The study elicits that financial crisis, mental anxieties, frustration, technological adaptation, shortage and higher costs of transportation, and price hike are the common challenges for all. The findings of the study recommend that in this unpropitious period, authority should take appropriate initiatives to help common people get relief from several challenges and adapt to new normal life. Those initiatives will reduce the pernicious impact of COVID-19 on the common people and ultimately on the economy of Bangladesh.


Keywords: COVID-19, Challenges of COVID-19, New Normal Life, and Bangladesh.

1) Associate Professor, Department of Accounting & Information Systems, Jagannath University

2) MBA (Major in HRM), Department of Management, University of Dhaka


IR 4.0 in the Apparel Industry of Bangladesh: Prospects and Challenges


Volume 14, No. 1, December 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.57240/DUJM140103

Page No: 133-151, ISSN: 2221-2523

Sadia Sharmin1


  Abstract: Over the past decade, the world has been heading towards the fourth industrial revolution, with many countries adopting the latest innovations and technological upgrades, which essentially are meant to meet the growing demands of consumers in every sector of an economy. The research first reviewed the existing theories and concepts regarding IR4.0 and then utilized the “Industry 4.0 Readiness” model of Impulse Industry 4.0-Readiness of the Association of Germany’s Engineering Industry (Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau) as the guiding framework for devising an original, suitable, readiness model to evaluate 135 RMG factories (big, medium and small) in Bangladesh. A mixed methodology approach is followed in the research, implying the utilization of both quantitative and qualitative tools. This exploratory research focused on how companies make use of technological tools and methodologies and how they are prepared to adopt the massive changes, brought forward by IR 4.0. Based on this study’s findings, apparel companies should focus more on using technologies such as AI, Sensors, ERP, SMV, GSD, Big Data, Cloud, M2M communication, etc. to boost Bangladesh’s global competitiveness. In addition, respondents believed that digital transformation could create a smart factory to optimize the manufacturing system, and it has a very substantial impact on industry 4.0. Furthermore, this exploratory study exposed that the apparel industries of Bangladesh are encountering major challenges in IR 4.0 strategy design and equipment organization to aid IR 4.0 demands.   Keywords: Apparel industry, Bangladesh, Fourth Industrial Revolution, IR 4.0 readiness, Impulse Industry 4.0-Readiness, Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau (VDMA)

1) DBA Fellow, Department of Management, and Joint Secretary to the Government of Bangladesh.


Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship Development: A Study on the Online Retailing Business in Bangladesh


Volume 14, No. 1, December 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.57240/DUJM140106

Page No: 89-100, ISSN: 2221-2523


Razib Hossain1


Abstract: This paper aimed to explore the factors affecting entrepreneurship development in the online retailing business in Bangladesh. The study was conducted on a sample of 78 business owners who start and run online stores. It has used a quantitative research approach to discover the factors. According to the findings of this study, factors such as confidence, risk tolerance, and the need for independence are important but insufficient. The results show that the need for independence and confidence has a vigorous effect on starting businesses in the e-retailing sector. Other factors like risk tolerance, need for achievement, market economic trends, and attitude towards entrepreneurial behavior strongly affect the development of an entrepreneurial mindset in dot-com retailing in Bangladesh. The ability to make professional connections, gain family support, and gain entrepreneurial education have a few positive effects. E-retailers do not have adequate opportunities to access entrepreneurial education. The ability to build professional connections also needs to improve.


Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Independence, and Online Retailing Business.

1) Lecturer, Department of Management, Faculty of Business Studies, University of Dhaka.


Entrepreneurial Perception about the Factors Affecting Innovation in the Bangladeshi Small and Medium Enterprises: A Study on the Jute Diversified Products Industry


Volume 14, No. 1, December 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.57240/DUJM140102

Page No: 23-34, ISSN: 2221-2523

Saira Banu1

Md. Mesbah Uddin, PhD2

  Abstract: In today’s world, innovation is inevitable for the growth and survival of businesses, especially for the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This study steered to identify the factors which affect innovation of the SMEs. Here, Jute Diversified Products (JDP) industry is selected as a study area as this has emerged from the most traditional SME sector of Bangladesh. Five cases are introduced here to analyze the perceptions of the entrepreneurs regarding the motivating/ de-motivating factors in relation to innovation. The findings of the study suggest that knowledge factors, institutional factors, cost factors, market factors, legal factors, political factors, and social factors have negative impacts on innovation while some forms of administrative factors act differently in the context of Bangladeshi SMEs.

Keywords: Innovation, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Jute Diversified Products (JDP) Industry, Entrepreneurs’ Perceptions.

1) Associate Professor, Department of Management, University of Dhaka.

2) Associate Professor, Department of Management, University of Dhaka.